1900 to present
Many of the Indian boarding schools, started
Pratt, closed in the 1930s; however, some continued into the 1960s with
the idea of 'civilizing' Indians. Even with the boarding schools
continued existence several important laws came into effect that
protected tribal rights.
In 1924 Native Americans were granted citizenship by the 1924 Indian Citizenship Act. It made all Native Americans within the territorial limits of the US to be made citizens, without affecting any rights involving property.
The civil rights movement
also led to improvements within Native American life. In 1978 the
American Indian Religious Freedom Act (AIRFA) and the American Indian
Child Welfare Act (ICWA) were passed by congress. AIRFA made it
legal for Native Americans "to believe, express, and exercise the
traditional religions of the American Indian, including but not limited
to access to sites, use and possession of sacred
In 1994 the BIA created the Tribal List Act of 1994. This act declares who is a federally recognized tribe. The US government uses this list to determine who is eligible for federal aid, support, and services. State recognized, while recognized as tribes by state governments, are not acknowledged by the BIA. This continues to cause problems in many areas of tribal law and relationships, such as cases involving religious freedom.
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